The stiff winds that blow off the surrounding mountains aid the continual movement which inhibits the spread of bilharzia, the parasitic disease carried by shallow water snails. Lake Tanganyika boasts over 350 species of fish of which most are endemic. "Description of three new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838 from the Lake Victoria region in southern Uganda, East Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)", "Global warming is killing off tropical lake fish – Study of Lake Tanganyika", "Decline of fishing in Lake Tanganyika 'due to warming, "Railways Africa – Extending beyond Chipata", "DR Congo: Many dead after ferry sinks on Lake Tanganyika", "The iTaukei Chief: Value and Alterity in Verata", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Democratic Republic of Congo Waterways Assessment,, Lakes of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecoregions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi–Democratic Republic of the Congo border, Democratic Republic of the Congo–Tanzania border, Democratic Republic of the Congo–Zambia border, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without alt bathymetry, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cichlid tribes in Lake Tanganyika (E = tribe endemic or near-endemic), This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 18:41. [78] Among these, Limnocaridina iridinae lives inside the mantle cavity of the unionid mussel Pleiodon spekei, making it one of only two known commensal species of freshwater shrimp (the other is the sponge-living Caridina spongicola from Lake Towuti, Indonesia).

It is the longest freshwater lake in the world (410 miles [660 km]) and the second deepest (4,710 feet [1,436 metres]) after Lake Baikal in Russia. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Official Site of the Conservation Lake Tanganyika, Africa, Tanganyika, Lake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Lake Tanganyika - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).

[15], The lake is stratified and seasonal mixing generally does not extend beyond depths of 150 m (490 ft). The vessel was later raised in 1924 and renamed MV Liemba (see transport). Their appearance is now believed to be the result of the highly diverse habitats in Lake Tanganyika and evolutionary pressure from snail-eating fish and, in particular, Platythelphusa crabs. In 1992 Lake Tanganyika featured in the British TV documentary series Pole to Pole. Springer.

Barron's Educational Series. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. From his camp, Che and his forces attempted to overthrow the government, but ended up pulling out in less than a year, as the National Security Agency (NSA) had been monitoring him the entire time and the NSA aided government forces in ambushing his guerrillas.

[17] This also means it has no oxygen (it is anoxic) in the deeper parts, essentially limiting fish and other aerobic organisms to the upper part. Nevertheless, others of these features are not consistent within the lakes and have not been adequately explained.…. [9] The Malagarasi is older than Lake Tanganyika, and before the lake was formed, it probably was a headwater of the Lualaba River, the main Congo River headstream.

[18][38] Six catfish genera are entirely restricted to the lake basin: Bathybagrus, Dinotopterus, Lophiobagrus, Phyllonemus, Pseudotanganikallabes and Tanganikallabes.

[90], There are many methods in which the native people of the area were fishing. [8], The lake has a complex history of changing flow patterns, due to its high altitude, great depth, slow rate of refill, and mountainous location in a turbulently volcanic area that has undergone climate changes. [8] The cichlids of the African Great Lakes, including Tanganyika, represent the most diverse extent of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. [10], Lake Tanganyika is an ancient lake. It is essentially a landlocked sea but in years of heavy rain the lake overflows into the Lukuga River which in turn feeds Congo DR’s Lualaba River. [citation needed], Lake Tanganyika fish can be found exported throughout East Africa. (1992). Its outlet is the Lukuga River, which flows into the Lualaba River.

26, p. 203. [15][87] Currently, there are around 100,000 people directly involved in the fisheries operating from almost 800 sites.

[67], Among the non-endemic fish, some are widespread African species but several are only shared with the Malagarasi and Congo River basins, such as the Congo bichir (Polypterus congicus), goliath tigerfish (Hydrocynus goliath), Citharinus citharus, six-banded distichodus (Distichodus sexfasciatus) and mbu puffer (Tetraodon mbu).
[69] There are about 30 species of non-thalassoid snails in the lake, but only five of these are endemic, including Ferrissia tanganyicensis and Neothauma tanganyicense. Despite the ferocious surface storms that occur, driving waves up to six meters high (20 foot), no mixing of the lower relict waters occur. [7], The catchment area of the lake is 231,000 km2 (89,000 sq mi).
He noted the name "Liemba" for its southern part, a word probably from the Fipa language, and in 1927 this was chosen as the new name for the conquered German First World War ship Graf von Götzen which is still serving the lake up to the present time.[92]. Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia.

[15] Former industrial fisheries, which boomed in the 1980s, have subsequently collapsed. By contrast, the oceans, because of currents and upwellings have life forms even as low as 11000 meters (36 080 feet). The clear waters host more than 350 different species of fish and is well known for aquarium fish exports and excellent angling. From Limnology to Fisheries: Lake Tanganyika and Other Large Lakes. Why not head to Z. [15][87] In 2016, it was estimated that the total catch was up to 200,000 tonnes. [68] Many of the snails are unusual for species living in freshwater in having noticeably thickened shells and/or distinct sculpture, features more commonly seen in marine snails. [93], The war on the lake had reached a stalemate by this stage, with both sides refusing to mount attacks. This is correlating with less productivity in the lake. Omissions? Bull. Loiselle, Paul (1994). Important ports situated along Lake Tanganyika are Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi, Kalemi in the DRC, Mpulungu in Zambia, and Ujiji and Kigoma in Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" apparently refers to "the great lake spreading out like a plain", or "plain-like lake". The lake is also vital to the estimated 10 million people living in the greater basin. Wright, J.J.; and L.M. [12] A similar pattern can be seen in the electric conductivity, ranging from about 670 μS/cm in the upper part to 690 μS/cm in the deepest.

It is the longest fresh water lake in the world and the second deepest after lake Baikal in Russia. The Cichlid Aquarium, p. 304. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Physics of Lakes, volume 1: Foundation of the Mathematical and Physical Background. Hist.

The southerly winds are slowing down which limits the ability for the mixing of nutrients. Since new species are being discovered continually in these remarkable lakes, it is difficult to determine which has the highest diversity, but they at least share the distinction of being the top two lakes in the world in terms of biodiversity, whilst Lake Tanganyika has the highest proportion of endemicity, concentrated mainly in the Zambian waters of the lake. The lake may also have at times had different inflows and outflows; inward flows from a higher Lake Rukwa, access to Lake Malawi and an exit route to the Nile have all been proposed to have existed at some point in the lake's history.

[35][19] Tanganyika cichlids differ extensively in ecology and include species that are herbivores, detritivores, planktivores, insectivores, molluscivores, scavengers, scale-eaters and piscivores. Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids, pp. [16] As a consequence of the stratification, the deep sections contain "fossil water".

", "Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids", "Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa", "Systematic revision of the formerly monotypic genus Tanganikallabes (Siluriformes: Clariidae)", "Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification", "Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika — the result of repeated introgressive hybridization", "Sub-Decadal Resolution in Sediments of Late Miocene Lake Pannon Reveals Speciation of Cyprideis (Crustacea, Ostracoda)", "Composition and seasonal variations in abundance of Copepod (Crustacea) populations from the northern part of Lake Tanganyika". A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Comparatively narrow, varying in width from 10 to 45 miles (16 to 72 km), it covers about 12,700 square miles (32,900 square km) and forms the boundary between Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and part of the boundary between Burundi and the DRC as well as part of the boundary between Tanzania and Zambia. [82][83], The diversity of other invertebrate groups in Lake Tanganyika is often not well-known, but there are at least 20 described species of leeches (12 endemics),[84] 9 sponges (7 endemic), 6 bryozoa (2 endemic), 11 flatworms (7 endemic), 20 nematodes (7 endemic), 28 annelids (17 endemic)[26] and the small hydrozoan jellyfish Limnocnida tanganyicae.

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